Chapter 18
Forms and Form Fields

I shall this very day, at Doctor’s feast,
My bounden service duly pay thee.
But one thing!—For insurance’ sake, I pray thee,
Grant me a line or two, at least.

Mephistopheles, in Goethe's Faust

Forms were introduced briefly in the previous chapter as a way to submit information provided by the user over HTTP. They were designed for a pre-JavaScript Web, assuming that interaction with the server always happens by navigating to a new page.

But their elements are part of the DOM like the rest of the page, and the DOM elements that represent form fields supports a number of properties and events that are not present on other elements. These make it possible to inspect and control them with JavaScript programs. This makes it possible to add additional functionality to a traditional form, or to use forms and fields as building blocks in a JavaScript application.


A web form consists of any number of input fields, grouped in a <form> tag. HTML allows a number of different styles of fields, ranging from simple on/off checkboxes to drop-down menus and fields for text input. This book won’t try to comprehensively discuss all of them, but we will start with a rough overview.

The <input> tag is used for a lot of field types. Its type attribute is used to select the field’s style. These are some commonly used types:

text A single-line text field
password Same as above, but hides the text that is typed
checkbox An on/off switch
radio (Part of) a multiple choice field
file Allows the user to choose a file from their computer

Form fields do not necessarily have to appear in a <form> tag. You can put them anywhere in a page. Such fields can not be submitted (only a form as a whole can), but when responding to input with JavaScript, that is often not what we want anyway.

<p><input type="text" value="abc"> (text)</p>
<p><input type="password" value="abc"> (password)</p>
<p><input type="checkbox" checked> (checkbox)</p>
<p><input type="radio" value="A" name="choice">
   <input type="radio" value="B" name="choice" checked>
   <input type="radio" value="C" name="choice"> (radio)</p>
<p><input type="file" checked> (file)</p>

The JavaScript interface for such elements differs with the type of the element. We’ll go over each of them later on in the chapter.

Multi-line text fields have their own tag, <textarea>, mostly because using an attribute to specify a multi-line starting value would be awkward. The <textarea> requires a matching </textarea> closing tag, and uses the text between those two, instead of using its value attribute, as starting text.


Finally, the <select> tag is used to create a field that allows the user to select from a number of pre-defined options.

  <option>Ice cream</option>

Whenever the value of a form field changes, it fires a "change" event.


Unlike most elements in an HTML document, form fields can get keyboard focus. When clicked—or activated in some other way—they become the currently active element, the main recipient of keyboard input.

If a document has a text field, text typed will only end up in there when it is focused. Other fields respond differently to keyboard events, for example a <select> menu will try to move to the option that contains the text the user typed, and respond to the arrow keys by moving its selection up and down.

We can control focus from JavaScript with the focus and blur methods. The first moves focus to the DOM element it is called on, the second removes focus. The value in document.activeElement corresponds to the currently focused element.

<input type="text">
  // → INPUT
  // → BODY

For some pages, it is expected that the user will want to start interacting with a form field immediately. JavaScript can be used to focus this field when the document is loaded, but HTML also provides the autofocus attribute, which produces the same effect, but lets the browser know what we are trying to achieve. This makes it possible for the browser to disable the behavior when it is not appropriate, such as when the user has focused something else.

<input type="text" autofocus>

Browsers traditionally also allow the user to move the focus through the document by pressing the Tab key. We can influence the order in which elements receive focus with the tabindex attribute. The example document below will let focus jump from the text input to the “OK” button, rather than going through the help link first.

<input type="text" tabindex=1> <a href=".">(help)</a>
<button onclick="console.log('ok')" tabindex=2>OK</button>

By default, most types of HTML elements can not be focused. But you can add a tabindex attribute to any element, which will make it focusable.

Disabled fields

All form fields can be disabled through their disabled attribute, which also exists as a property on the element’s DOM object. Disabled fields can not be focused or changed. They also have a different appearance, usually they look grey and faded.

<button>I'm all right</button>
<button disabled>I'm out</button>

When the program is busy processing the action caused by some button or other control, for example making requests to a server, it can be a good idea to disable the control until the action finishes, so that when the user gets impatient and clicks it again, they don’t accidentally repeat their action.

The form as a whole

When a field is contained in a <form> element, its DOM element will have a property form linking back to the form’s DOM element. The <form> element, in turn, has a property elements containing an array-like collection of the fields inside of it.

The name attribute of a form field determines the way its value will be identified when the form is submitted. It can also be used as a property name when accessing the form’s elements property, which acts both as an array-like object (accessible by number) and a map (accessable by name).

<form action="example/submit.html">
  Name: <input type="text" name="name"><br>
  Password: <input type="password" name="password"><br>
  <button type="submit">Log in</button>
  var form = document.querySelector("form");
  // → password
  // → password
  console.log( == form);
  // → true

A button with a type attribute of submit will, when pressed, cause the form to be submitted. Pressing Enter in when a form field is focused has the same effect.

When this happens, the form is submitted. This normally means that the browser navigates to the page indicated by the form’s action attribute, using either a GET or a POST request. But before that happens, a "submit" event is fired. This event can be handled by JavaScript, and the handler can prevent the default behavior by calling preventDefault on the event object.

<form action="example/submit.html">
  Value: <input type="text" name="value">
  <button type="submit">Save</button>
  var form = document.querySelector("form");
  form.addEventListener("submit", function(event) {
    console.log("Saving value", form.elements.value.value);

Intercepting "submit" events in JavaScript has various uses. We can write code to verify that the values the user entered make sense, and immediately show an error message instead of submitting the form when they don’t. Or we can disable the regular way of submitting the form entirely, as in the example above, and have out program handle the input, possibly using XMLHttpRequest to send it over to a server without reloading the page.

Text fields

Fields created by <input> tags with a type of text or password, as well as textarea tags, share a common interface. Their DOM elements have a value property which holds their current content, as a string. Setting this property to another string changes the field’s content.

The selectionStart and selectionEnd properties of text fields give us information about the cursor and selection in the text. When nothing is selected, these two properties hold the same number, indicating the position of the cursor, for example 0 to indicate the start of the text, or 10 when it is after the 10th character. When part of the field is selected, they will differ, giving us the start and end of the selected text. Like value, these properties may also be written to.

As an example, imagine you are writing an article about Srinivasa Ramanujan, but have some trouble spelling his name. The code below wires up a <textarea> tag with an event handler that, when you press F1, inserts the string “Srinivasa Ramanujan” for you.

  var textarea = document.querySelector("textarea");
  textarea.addEventListener("keydown", function(event) {
    // The key code for F1 happens to be 112
    if (event.keyCode == 112) {
      replaceSelection(textarea, "Srinivasa Ramanujan");
  function replaceSelection(field, word) {
    var from = field.selectionStart, to = field.selectionEnd;
    field.value = field.value.slice(0, from) + word +
    // Put the cursor after the word
    field.selectionStart = field.selectionEnd =
      from + word.length;

The replaceSelection function replaces the currently selected part of a text field’s content with the given word, and then moves the cursor after that word, so that the user can continue typing.

The "change" event for a text field does not fire every time something is typed. Rather, it happens when the field loses focus after its content was changed. To respond immediately to changes in a text field, you should register a handler for the "input" event instead, which fires for every character typed (or deleted, or otherwise manipulated by the user).

The example below shows a text field and a counter showing the current length of the text entered.

<input type="text"> length: <span id="length">0</span>
  var text = document.querySelector("input");
  var output = document.querySelector("#length");
  text.addEventListener("input", function() {
    output.textContent = text.value.length;

Checkboxes and radio buttons

A checkbox field is a simple binary toggle. Its value can be extracted or changed through its checked property, which holds a Boolean value.

<input type="checkbox" id="purple">
<label for="purple">Make this page purple</label>
  var checkbox = document.querySelector("#purple");
  checkbox.addEventListener("change", function() { =
      checkbox.checked ? "mediumpurple" : "";

The <label> tag is used to associate a piece of text with an input field. Its for attribute should refer to the id of the field. Clicking the label will activate the field (focus it, or change it in case of a checkbox).

A radio button is similar to a checkbox, but implicitly linked to other radio buttons with the same name attribute, so that only one of them can be active at any time.

<input type="radio" name="color" value="mediumpurple"> Purple
<input type="radio" name="color" value="lightgreen"> Green
<input type="radio" name="color" value="lightblue"> Blue
  var buttons = document.getElementsByName("color");
  function setColor(event) { =;
  for (var i = 0; i < buttons.length; i++)
    buttons[i].addEventListener("change", setColor);

The document.getElementsByName method gives us all elements with a given name attribute. The example loops over those (with a regular for loop, not forEach, because the returned collection is not a real array), and registers an event handler for each element. Remember that event objects have a target property referring to the element that triggered the event. This is often useful in event handlers like this one, which will be called on different elements and need some way to access the current target.

Select fields

Select fields are conceptually similar to radio buttons—they also allow the user to choose from a set of options. But where a radio button puts the layout of the options under our control, the appearance of a <select> tag is determined by the browser.

Select fields also have a variant that is more akin to a list of checkboxes, rather than radio boxes. When given the multiple attribute, a <select> tag will allow the user to select any number of options, rather than just a single option.

<select multiple>
  <option>Ice cream</option>

This will, in most browsers, show up differently than a non-multiple select field, which is commonly drawn as a drop-down control that only shows the options when you open it. The size attribute to the <select> tag allows explicit control over this—it is used to set the amount of options that are visible at the same time. For example setting it to "3" will make the field show three lines, whether it has the multiple option enabled or not.

Each <option> tag has a value. This value can be defined with a value attribute, but when that is not given, the text inside the option will count as the option’s value. The value property of a <select> element reflects the currently selected option. For a multiple field, though, this property doesn’t mean much, since it will only give the value of one of the currently selected options.

The <option> tags for a <select> field can be accessed as an array-like object through its options property. Each option has a property selected, which indicates whether that option is currently selected. The property can also be written to select or deselect an option.

The example below extracts the selected values from a multiple select field, and uses them to compose a binary number from individual bits. Hold control (or command on Mac) to select multiple options.

<select multiple>
  <option value="1">0001</option>
  <option value="2">0010</option>
  <option value="4">0100</option>
  <option value="8">1000</option>
</select> = <span id="output">0</span>
  var select = document.querySelector("select");
  var output = document.querySelector("#output");
  select.addEventListener("change", function() {
    var number = 0;
    for (var i = 0; i < select.options.length; i++) {
      var option = select.options[i];
      if (option.selected)
        number += Number(option.value);
    output.textContent = number;

File fields

File fields were originally designed as a way to upload files from the browser’s machine through a form. In modern browsers, they also provide a way to read such files from JavaScript programs. The field acts as a manner of gatekeeper—the script can not simply start reading private files from the user’s computer, but when a file has been selected in such a field, that is understood to mean that the script may read it.

A file field usually looks like a button labeled something like “choose file” or “browse”, with information about the chosen file next to it.

<input type="file">
  var input = document.querySelector("input");
  input.addEventListener("change", function() {
    if (input.files.length > 0) {
      var file = input.files[0];
      console.log("You chose",;
      if (file.type)
        console.log("It has type", file.type);

The files property of a file field element is an array-like object (again, not a real array) containing the files chosen in the field. It is initially empty. The reason there isn’t simply a file property is that file fields also support a multiple attribute, which makes it possible to select multiple files at the same time.

Objects in the files property have properties like name (the file name), size (the file’s size in bytes), and type (the media type of the file, like text/plain or image/jpeg).

What it does not have is a property that contains the content of the file. Getting at that is a little more involved. Since reading a file from disk can take time, the interface will have to be asynchronous to avoid freezing the document. You can think of the FileReader constructor as being similar to XMLHttpRequest, but for files.

<input type="file" multiple>
  var input = document.querySelector("input");
  input.addEventListener("change", function() {, function(file) {
      var reader = new FileReader();
      reader.addEventListener("load", function() {
        console.log("File",, "starts with",
                    reader.result.slice(0, 20));

Reading a file is done by creating a FileReader object, registering a "load" event handler for it, and calling its readAsText method, giving it the file we want to read. Once loading finishes, the reader’s result property contains the file’s content.

The example uses Array.prototype.forEach to iterate over the array, since in a normal loop it would be awkward to get the correct file and reader objects from the event handler—the variables would be shared by all iterations of the loop.

FileReaders also fire an "error" event when reading the file fails for any reason. The error object itself will end up in the reader’s error property. You could wrap it in a Promise (see Chapter 17) like this:

function readFile(file) {
  return new Promise(function(succeed, fail) {
    var reader = new FileReader();
    reader.addEventListener("load", function() {
    reader.addEventListener("error", function() {

It is possible to read only part of a file by calling slice on it, and passing the result of that (a so-called blob object) to the file reader.

Storing data client-side

Simple HTML pages with a bit of JavaScript can be a great medium for “mini application”—small helper programs that automate everyday things. By connecting a few form fields with event handlers you can do anything from converting between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit to computing passwords from a master password and a website name.

When such an application needs to remember something between sessions, you can not use JavaScript variables, since those are thrown away every time a page is closed. You could set up a server, connect it to the Internet, and have your appplication store something there. We will see how to do that in Chapter 20. But this adds a lot of extra work and complexity. Sometimes it is enough to just keep the data in the browser. But how?

You can store string data in a way that survives page reloads by putting it in the localStorage object. This object allows you to file string values under names (also strings). For example:

localStorage.setItem("username", "marijn");
// → marijn

A value in localStorage sticks around until it is overwritten, removed with removeItem, or the user clears out their local data.

Sites from different domains get different storage compartments. That means that data stored in localStorage by a given website can in principle only be read (and overwritten) by scripts on that same site.

Browsers also enforce a limit on the size of the data a site can store in localStorage, typically in the order of a few megabytes. This restriction, along with the fact that filling up people’s hard drives with junk is not really profitable, prevents this feature from eating up too much space.

The code below implements a simple note-taking application. It keeps the user’s notes as an object associating note titles with content strings. This object is encoded as JSON and stored in localStorage. The user can select a note from a <select> field, and change that note’s text in a <textarea>. A note can be added by pressing a button.

Notes: <select id="list"></select>
<button onclick="addNote()">new</button><br>
<textarea id="currentnote" style="width: 100%; height: 10em">

  var list = document.querySelector("#list");
  function addToList(name) {
    var option = document.createElement("option");
    option.textContent = name;

  // Initialize the list from localStorage
  var notes = JSON.parse(localStorage.getItem("notes")) ||
              {"shopping list": ""};
  for (var name in notes)
    if (notes.hasOwnProperty(name))

  function saveToStorage() {
    localStorage.setItem("notes", JSON.stringify(notes));

  var current = document.querySelector("#currentnote");
  current.value = notes[list.value];

  list.addEventListener("change", function() {
    current.value = notes[list.value];
  current.addEventListener("change", function() {
    notes[list.value] = current.value;

  function addNote() {
    var name = prompt("Note name", "");
    if (!name) return;
    if (!notes.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
      notes[name] = "";
    list.value = name;
    current.value = notes[name];

The script initializes the notes variable to the value stored in localStorage, or if that is missing, to a simple object with only an empty "shopping list" note in it. Reading a field that does not exist from localStorage will yield null. And passing null to JSON.parse will make it parse the string "null", and return null. Thus, the || operator can be used to provide a default value in a situation like this.

Whenever the note data changes (when a new note is added or an existing note changed), the saveToStorage function is called to update the storage field. If this application was intended to handle thousands of notes, rather than a handful, this would be too expensive, and we’d have to come up with a more complicated way to store them, such as giving each note its own storage field.

When the user adds a new note, the code must update the text field explicitly, even though the <select> field has a "change" handler that does the same thing. This is necessary because "change" events only fire when the user changes the field’s value, not when a script does it.

There is another object similar to localStorage called sessionStorage. The difference between the two is that the content of sessionStorage is forgotten at the end of each session, which for most browsers means whenever the browser is closed.


HTML can express various types of form fields, such as text fields, checkboxes, multiple-choice fields, and file pickers.

Such fields can be inspected and manipulated with JavaScript. They fire the events "change" when changed and "input" when text is typed, as well as the various keyboard events. These allow us to notice when the user is interacting with them. Properties like value (for text and select fields) or checked (for checkboxes and radio buttons) are used to read or set the field’s content.

When a form is submitted, its "submit" event fires. A JavaScript handler can preventDefault that event to prevent the submission from happening. Form fields elements do not have to be wrapped in <form> tag.

When the user has selected a field from their local file system in a file picker field, the FileReader interface can be used to access the content of this file from a JavaScript program.

The localStorage and sessionStorage objects can be used to save information in a way that survives page reloads. The first saves the data forever (or until the user decides to clear it), the second saves it until the browser is closed.


A JavaScript workbench

Build an interface that allows people to type and run pieces of JavaScript code.

Put a button next to a <textarea> field, which, when pressed, uses the Function constructor we saw in Chapter 10 to wrap the text in a function and call it. Convert the return value of the function, or any error it raised, to a string and display it below the text field.

<textarea id="code">return "hi";</textarea>
<button id="button">Run</button>
<pre id="output"></pre>

  // Your code here.

Use document.querySelector or document.getElementById, to get access to the elements defined in your HTML. An event handler for "click" or "mousedown" events on the button can get the value property of the text field, and call new Function on it.

Make sure you wrap both the call to new Function and the call to its result in a try block, so that you can catch exceptions that it produces. In this case, we really don’t know what type of exception we are looking for, so catch everything.

The textContent property of the output element can be used to fill it with a string message. Or, if you want to keep the old content around, create a new text node using document.createTextNode, and append it to the element. Remember to add a newline character to the end, so that not all output appears on a single line.


Extend a text field so that when the user types, a list of suggested values is shown below the field. You have an array of possible values, and should show those that start with the text that was typed. When a suggestion is clicked, replace the text field’s current value with it.

<input type="text" id="field">
<div id="suggestions" style="cursor: pointer"></div>

  // Builds up an array with global variable names, like
  // 'alert', 'document', and 'scrollTo'
  var terms = [];
  for (var name in window)

  // Your code here.

The best event for updating the suggestion list is "input", since that will fire immediately when the content of the field is changed.

Then loop over the array of terms and see if they start with the given string, for example by calling indexOf and seeing if the result is zero. For each matching string, add an element to the suggestions <div>. You should probably also empty that each time you start updating the suggestions, for example by setting its textContent to the empty string.

You could either add a "click" event handler to every suggestion element, or add a single one to the outer <div> that holds them, and look at the target property of the event to find out which suggestion was clicked.

To get the suggestion text out of a DOM node, you could look at its textContent, or set an attribute to explicitly store the text when you create the element.

Conway’s Game of Life

Conway’s Game of Life is a simple simulation that creates artificial “life” on a grid, each cell of which is either live or not. Each generation (turn), the following rules are applied:

  1. Any live cell with fewer than two or more than three live neighbors dies.

  2. Any live cell with two or three live neighbors lives on to the next generation.

  3. Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbors becomes a live cell.

Where a neighbor is defined as any adjacent cell, including diagonally adjacent ones.

Note that these rules are applied to the whole grid at once, not one square at a time. That means that the counting of neighbors is based on the situation at the start of the generation, and changes happening to neighbor cells this generation should not influence the new state of a given cell.

Implement this game, using whichever data structure you find appropriate. Use Math.random to populate the grid with a random pattern initially. Display it as a grid of checkbox fields, with a button next to it to advance to the next generation. When the user checks or unchecks the checkboxes, their changes should be included when computing the next generation.

<div id="grid"></div>
<button id="next">Next generation</button>

  // Your code here.

To solve the problem of having the changes conceptually happen at the same time, try to see the computation of a generation as a pure function, which takes one grid, and produces a new grid that represents the next turn.

Representing the grid can be done in any of the way seen in Chapters 7 and 15. Counting live neighbors can be done with two nested loops, looping over adjacent coordinates. Take care not to count cells outside of the field, and to ignore the cell in the center, for which we are counting.

Making changes to checkboxes take affect on the next generation can be done in two ways. An event handler could notice these changes and update the current grid to reflect them, or you could generate a fresh grid from the values in the checkboxes before computing the next turn.

If you choose to go with event handlers, you might want to attach attributes that identify the position that each checkbox corresponds to, so that it is easy to find out which cell to change.

To draw the grid of checkboxes, you can use either a <table> element (see Chapter 13) or simply put them all in the same element, and put <br> (line break) elements between the rows.